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Today radio is an integral attribute of the information aspect of human life. The morning humorous broadcast invigorates us and cheers us up in the best possible way, on the way to work we listen to the latest news from leading information radio stations, as well as get acquainted with the latest musical innovations and shape our musical tastes. Of course, every person who is close to the radio industry, is going to work there or is simply interested, will be interested to learn about the history of the emergence and development of radio. The thematic course will help you with this.
How radio appeared
The road of radio from an idea to an already embodied world sensation took almost a century. The fact that there is such a phenomenon as electromagnetic waves became known quite by accident. In 1820, Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted discovered the connection between magnetism and electricity as a result of his experiment. After, at his lecture, the scientist showed those present how the wire from the voltaic column heats up. One listener noticed that when the galvanic circuit is closed, the needle of the nautical compass on the table to demonstrate the experiment is deflected. From now on, scientists began active research on electromagnetic waves.
In 1895, the first apparatus appeared that was capable of receiving radio signals (via Morse code). Its inventor was the Russian scientist Alexander Popov. But I must say that his authorship is still in doubt. Italian entrepreneur and radio technician Guglielmo Marconi is considered his main competitor . In 1896, he presented to the public a similar apparatus, the principle of which was the same. Then he received the first patent in the radio industry. After the death of Alexander Popov, Marconi, and also the German engineer Karl Brownie , received the Nobel Prize for his work on the creation of a wireless telegraph.
The very first disc jockey on radio is an electronics teacher from California named Charles Herrold . In 1990, he created the first radio station called " San Jose Calling ", which still operates in San Francisco, but under a different name - " KCBS ". In the same period, Gerrold introduced the term “ broadcast", Which means" broadcast "in translation. Since Charles was the son of a farmer, he knew that in the agricultural industry, this term refers to the spreading of seeds in different directions. So, he stressed that the station he created can broadcast to the widest possible audience. In order for the radio signal to be received in different directions, a special omnidirectional antenna was created. And Gerrold did not stop there: he became the founder of the commercial use of radio by placing advertisements on his air.
Informing listeners and their entertainment in the sense in which we understand it now, radio stations began to carry out around 1915. A year later, the permanent broadcasting of the American station 9XM (now working under the name WHA ) began. In Argentina, entertainment radio appeared in 1920, and in the same year the 8MK radio station appeared in Detroit, which later became known as WWJ .
Further development of radio
As soon as the first broadcasts appeared, the demand for radio receivers became truly enormous. For example, in 1916, David Sarnoff , an American with Russian roots, manager of the American subsidiary of a company created by Marconi, predicted that approximately one million receivers would be purchased within three years. The assumption was quite loud and bold, however, it was destined to come true. In the period 1922-1924, more than a million receivers were sold, totaling $ 83.5 million.
A further important stage in the development of radio was the emergence of FM waves, which are now known to us. American Edwin Armstrong patented an FM radio in 1933, which uses wave frequencies to reduce interference from atmospheric electricity. Four years later, construction began on W1XOJ, an experimental FM radio station. And already in the 1940s, FM broadcasting began to be used around the world and became commonplace.
With the advent of the Internet, radio began to actively spread to this dimension. The first internet radio station was created in 1993 by Karl Malmud and was named " Internet Talk Radio ". Today, there are a lot of them.
Of course, we have given only basic moments in the history of radio, in fact, this question can reveal to us a lot of unknown nuances. The course on the study of the history of radio will allow listeners to get to know this topic as deeply as possible, to understand the principle of operation of radio and the essence of its development, and this knowledge will undoubtedly be useful to radio workers or those who dream of becoming one in the future.
List of AM radio stations in the United States.
THE RADIO ARRIVED TO STAY.
The historical opportunity of mainstream media
An important article "Accelerating the Development of Media Convergence and Building an All-Media Communication Pattern" that we promote the development of media integration to make mainstream public opinion bigger and stronger, and to consolidate the common ideological foundation for the unity and struggle of the whole party and the whole country. The "two centenary" goals and the Chinese dream of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation provide powerful spiritual strength and public opinion support. He also emphasized that "this is a historical opportunity for mainstream media. It is necessary to strengthen confidence, build up morale, persist in telling the story, and form an international voice that is compatible with my country's comprehensive national strength." In order to thoroughly study and implement this series of important expositions , experts to discuss topics such as challenges and opportunities in the all-media era, promoting the in-depth development of media integration, and building a new mainstream media.
1. Deeply understand the challenges and opportunities in the all-media era, and accurately grasp the characteristics of the "four all" media
The continuous development of omni-media, the emergence of full-process media, holographic media, all-employee media, and full-effect media, information is ubiquitous, all-inclusive, and no one does not use it, resulting in profound public opinion ecology, media patterns, and communication methods. With changes, news and public opinion work faces new challenges. How to understand the profound changes in the ecology of public opinion, media patterns, and communication methods in the all-media era?
All-media era, the ecology of public opinion has changed significantly. Social media is increasingly becoming a public opinion gathering and distributing platform that integrates information and opinions. The existing discourse advantages and agenda setting functions of traditional media are gradually weakening. This is undoubtedly a major challenge to the government and mainstream media for information release and public opinion guidance. Not only that, communication technology (including the rapid development of mobile communication technology) has brought people into the 5G era, and the popularization of 5G will generate more emerging business forms in the field of information dissemination, and even form an industrial scale, which is bound to affect the existing The communication pattern and the ecology of public opinion have a greater impact. "Be prepared for the hesitation and be the country's permanent way." We should be sufficiently sensitive to the upgrading of communication technology and its development trends, and make early judgments on what problems it will bring.
The concept of omnimedia has been around for a long time, but in the past, the understanding of omnimedia was mainly focused on the superficial level of media form, distribution platform or means of expression. Compared with the previous shallow-level omni-media communication, “full-process media, holographic media, all-employee media, and full-effect media” is a deeper omnimedia concept. Today’s omnimedia is not only a cross-media integration, but also a cross-media concept. A deeper integration of time and space, across physical barriers, across subject identities, and across functions. At present, building an all-media communication pattern is a requirement for media integration to enter a new stage, with a more overall perspective and strategic height.
All-media has caused many profound changes in the media field, and brought huge challenges to news and public opinion work. In terms of the ecology of public opinion, many communicators have poured into the public opinion field, which has further divided the public opinion field. In terms of media landscape and communication methods, the update and iteration of new media forms and communication technologies will reshape the past media landscape, presenting more complex and diversified communication methods, and will also trigger a more intense and complex new round of competition.
What needs to be pointed out is that these changes bring not only challenges, but also new directions and ideas for media integration. Complying with the general development trend of the omnimedia era will open up a whole new situation for the development of news and public opinion work. General Secretary Xi Jinping said, "We must use the fruits of the information revolution to accelerate the construction of an integrated and integrated omni-media communication pattern." my country’s media integration process has progressed so far, and it has entered the deep water zone and the second half. It has already achieved the transition from "you are you and I am me" to "you are in you and you are in me". The various changes triggered by the omnimedia era have provided inspiration for the continuous deepening of media integration, and thus opened the in-depth integration stage of "you are me, I am you", which is undoubtedly a great way to create a new mainstream media and do good news and public opinion work. Opportunity.
Driven by technology, the current media landscape and public opinion ecology are undergoing profound changes, and new communication technologies have become an important factor affecting the media ecology of our country.
First, the basic communication technology is moving towards the 5G era, and the communication path is changing. Compared with 3G and 4G technologies, 5G technology has three obvious characteristics: First, the transmission speed is multiplied, reaching ten times or even a hundred times that of 4G; Second, there are more connections, which can effectively support the access of a large number of IoT devices. In the future, the growth of mobile service traffic will be more than 1,000 times; third, the delay in the communication process will be lower and lower, and the transmission delay can reach the order of milliseconds. The popularization and application of 5G communication technology is not only a quantitative change in the transmission speed and quantity, but also a qualitative change in the ecological structure of the media. For example, the upcoming 5G provides a foundation for the popularization of VR technology, and the popularization and application of VR technology will provide users with a brand-new social lifestyle and bring people an unprecedented experience. VR will fly into the homes of ordinary people like PCs and smartphones, and may become another universal technology platform. The popularization of VR technology will transform the "human-computer interaction" mode of information dissemination into a "human-computer interaction" mode, allowing users to integrate information into specific scenarios for information interaction.
Second, the rapid development and application of artificial intelligence technology is subverting the content production and distribution methods in the traditional media era. The change in content production methods means that the proportion of content produced by machines will become larger and larger, the content production process in the traditional media era will be completely changed, and the content production efficiency will be improved exponentially. The change in the mode of dissemination refers to the information flow, channel form, etc. The use of algorithms to understand user interests and recommend personalized content intelligent push to users has changed the one-way information dissemination mode viewed by editors in the era of traditional media and PC networks. , It has become a two-way mode of targeted push content based on user needs. In terms of channel form, intelligent voice applications and robots based on natural language technology will develop rapidly. In addition, new social modes such as highly immersive, scene-oriented, and real-time VR social media are new forms that surpass current social media such as WeChat and Weibo, and will also subvert the current social media methods.
Third, driven by technology, changes in the media landscape are also changing the ecology of public opinion. First, the expression form of the ecology of public opinion will change from the current text-based structured data to unstructured data. The proportion of voice and non-verbal symbols will become larger and larger. The change in the expression mode means the impact of public opinion. It will be more difficult to grasp. The second is that the expression of opinions will be more coterie. The biggest feature of coterie is its closedness, forming a "Balkanized" independent castle. The third is that social robots will become a new "species" that communicate with people, which will affect public opinion. At present, social robots already have a certain proportion of social platforms. The emergence of social robots will change the ecology of public opinion that is completely dominated by people.
2. Adhere to the development direction of integration and accelerate the transition from the phase of addition to the phase of integration
Reporter: General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that traditional media and emerging media “must adhere to the direction of integrated development and accelerate the transition from the additive phase to the phase of integration”. At the same time, “adhere to the mobile-first strategy” and “form resource intensive, reasonable structure and differences Develop, coordinate and efficient all-media communication system". At the moment when "mobile Internet has become the main channel of information dissemination", what are the key links and effective ways to promote the in-depth development of media integration?
According to the development direction of integration, the relationship between traditional media and emerging media should complement each other's advantages, and the two parties should realize the inclusiveness of information content, technology applications, platform terminals, and management methods. Summarizing the current media fusion experience, it is not difficult to find that the media that has achieved fusion effects have made active explorations in the direction of integration and achieved excellent results, while the media with poor fusion effects have mostly stopped at the simple physical addition stage. . At present, my country's media integration is in a critical period of moving from addition to integration, and the integration of content, platform, technology, management and other aspects should be accelerated.
In addition to adhering to the direction of integrated development, the promotion of in-depth media integration should also focus on breakthroughs in mobile first, media intelligence, omni-media communication system, and emerging media management. As 5G technology will trigger a new round of drastic changes in the media landscape, mobile media will surely enter a new stage of accelerated development. We must adhere to the mobile-first strategy, attach importance to the mobile Internet position, and let the mainstream media use mobile communication to firmly occupy the commanding heights of communication. It is necessary to promote the intelligentization of media, promote independent innovation, and promote the deep integration of media and technology. The mainstream media should continue to innovate the forms and means of communication, promote the gradual formation of new modes and forms of mainstream thought dissemination, and realize technologically “for my use” from following the lead to “independent innovation”. It is necessary to build an all-media communication system, use differentiated overall planning strategies, give play to the unique advantages of various media, and form a joint force. It is necessary to strengthen the management of emerging media and build a clean and virtuous cyberspace.
Compared with traditional media, the mobile Internet is a more people-friendly and more grounded communication platform. Therefore, when the mobile Internet has become the main channel for information dissemination, to promote the in-depth development of media integration, we must first change our concepts. Change subject orientation to audience orientation. This requires mainstream media to further enhance the awareness of target audiences and the awareness of precision communication, and provide them with information and various services to meet the needs of recipients through full media, holographic media, full media, and full effect media. To this end, it is necessary to establish an information distribution mechanism based on user databases and content databases and through algorithms to achieve precise push to meet users' personalized information needs and radiate the influence of mainstream media to a more subtle level.
: In the context of the current technology-driven media revolution, there are three key links to promote the in-depth development of media integration. One is the idea first. The concept is the key factor that determines the choice of each media transformation path. Only by grasping the frontier direction of technological development, can we adopt new application technology methods to achieve process optimization and platform reengineering in time. The second is mechanism design. Media integration needs to be built on the basis of technology, and how to obtain outstanding technical talents by participating in market competition requires mechanism guarantees. The third is the integration platform. New technologies need to integrate multiple resources in order to quickly adapt to changes. You cannot do it yourself behind closed doors. Only by establishing an integrated platform can the effective use of various media resources and production factors be achieved and their maximum effectiveness can be achieved.
3. Build a new type of mainstream media and expand the territory of mainstream value influence
We should promptly do a good job in top-level design, create a new type of communication platform, build a new type of mainstream media, expand the territory of mainstream value influence, and let the party's voice spread more widely, more widely, and more deeply. In the field of information production, supply-side structural reforms must also be carried out, and the quality and level of positive publicity will be significantly improved through innovations in concepts, content, forms, methods, and methods. How to understand the important judgment made by General Secretary Xi Jinping that "this is a historical opportunity for mainstream media", and then achieve the goal of "expanding the influence of mainstream value"?
The change in the media landscape driven by new technologies is a development opportunity for mainstream media. In the history of the development of the media industry, every technological upgrade is an opportunity to reshuffle the media landscape. The innovation from printing technology to electronic technology has made radio and television an important media. Entering the Internet era, with the technological development from 2G to 4G, the corresponding media form has also evolved from text to pictures and then to video applications, from PC Internet to mobile Internet, and from portals to social media. At present, 5G communication technology and intelligent communication have just started. This is a dual opportunity for technological change and a key time node for my country's mainstream media to seize the historical opportunity.
On the one hand, in order to build a new mainstream media, we cannot stop thinking about problems at the original technical logic level, but need to promote innovation in terms of concepts, content, forms, methods, and means based on the new technology development logic. In other words, only those mainstream media that adapt to the new technological development model can obtain development opportunities. On the other hand, the new mainstream media consists of different media and platforms, and the functional positioning of mainstream media's multi-media and multi-platform should be considered. The history of media development is actually a history of gradual differentiation of media functions. At first there was only print media, and all information in the entire society relied on newspapers and other printed materials; the emergence of electronic media such as radio and television has differentiated the functions of printed media; the emergence of Internet carriers such as computers and mobile phones further differentiated the information dissemination function of traditional media . Facing the differentiation of functions brought about by technological development, what traditional media needs is to find out which functions still have value, which functions have been replaced, and which new functions need to be developed. The mobile Internet is diversifying its original media functions. It must be soberly positioned in the tide of convergence and stay in the original state of understanding of media functions. It is impossible to truly understand the inherent laws of media convergence.
For any communication subject, the development of new media technology, including mobile communication technology, is a brand new topic. For example, my country's mobile communication technology has experienced a process from 2G following, 3G breakthrough to 4G simultaneous development, and is expected to catch up in the 5G era and become a global leader. Leading is groundbreaking, and there is no existing experience to learn from. For this reason, it is very necessary to further strengthen the research of information technology in the future, explore how the media will change under the "Internet +" model, and how to effectively supervise and manage it. If the mainstream media can conduct forward-looking predictions and research, and use mainstream values to control new communication technologies and methods, it can effectively improve the level of information dissemination and the ability to guide public opinion. This is the historical opportunity faced by mainstream media.
Theoretically speaking, only when the audience accepts the information disseminated by the disseminator without barriers and ambiguity, can the dissemination effect be maximized and optimized, and the goal of "expanding the influence of mainstream value" can be achieved. First of all, this requires mainstream media to pay attention to the interactive features of new media in the process of media integration, establish an audience feedback monitoring system, timely understand public opinion and public opinion and the audience’s views on an event or issue, and provide effective guidance to avoid Distortion of public opinion occurred. Secondly, mainstream media has both subscriber resources and developed new media user resources, and the two aspects of user data are connected, in-depth analysis and mining of its social value, and through the integrated media to attract and serve users, can the communication be further improved. Effects and social benefits.
Entering the all-media era is a major opportunity for all types of media. The all-media era makes information ubiquitous, omnipotent, and no one uses it. It has profoundly reshaped the media form and communication mode, and created a more convenient communication environment for better propaganda and ideological work. According to the overall requirements of "positive energy", "manageable" and "good use", to achieve the goal of "expanding the influence of mainstream value", efforts can be made from five aspects.
One is to do a good job of top-level design. From the promotion of the "central kitchen" to the construction of the county-level integrated media center, national policies have been promulgated one after another, indicating the transformation direction and integration rules for the integration of media at all levels. The second is to adhere to the correct political orientation, public opinion orientation, and value orientation, and promote supply-side structural reforms in the field of information production. The mainstream media should sing the main theme, strengthen positive online publicity, and at the same time continue to strengthen the innovation of communication methods and methods, improve the quality of positive publicity, and maximize and optimize the effect of public opinion publicity. The third is that the mainstream media must grasp the initiative and dominance of the public opinion field, dare to guide and be good at guiding. In the complex network of public opinion, mainstream media must take the initiative to take the initiative, daring to show off their swords, and make sure they are turbulent and clear in order to watch and listen. The fourth is to make omni-media communication run on the track of the rule of law, and comprehensively improve the ability and level of technological network governance. At the same time as the integrated development, the supervisory department should play the role of governance body and attach importance to integrated management. To comply with the laws of Internet development, we must actively embrace and actively apply new technologies such as big data, but also pay attention to preventing and responding to the risks brought by the technology, and use mainstream value orientation to control "algorithms". Fifth, grasp the trend of mobilization, socialization, and visualization in the field of international communication, build an external communication discourse system, enhance the effect of external communication, tell Chinese stories well, and enhance international discourse power.
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